Chloramphenicol


Questions | Reviews ***~

About Chloramphenicol


I'd like to ask if what are some bacterias that were able to be killed by Chloramphenicol?
by John Claud Hilario in Asia (Philippines), 09/03/2006

why dose of chloramphenicol PO less than its IV or IM dose?


please send my answer to my Email AND thanks for ever
by Mohamed Ahmed in Egypt _El-Giza, 01/16/2007

Chloramphenicol
Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)
Chloramphenicol
(klor-am- FEN-ih-kohl) Chloromycetin (Cream and Otic) Mychel Pentamycetin PMS-Chloramphenicol (Rx)
Chloramphenicol ophthalmic
Chloramphenicol ophthalmic (Chloromycetin Ophthalmic)
Chloramphenicol
(klor-am- FEN-ih-kohl) AK Chlor Chloromycetin Ophthalmic Chloroptic Ophthalmic Chloroptic S.O.P. Ophthalmic Diochloram Ophtho-Chloram (Rx)
Chloramphenicol sodium succinate
Chloramphenicol sodium succinate (Chloromycetin Sodium Succinate)
Chloramphenicol
(klor-am- FEN-ih-kohl) Chloromycetin Injection Chloromycetin Sodium Succinate Mychel-S Novo-Chorocap (Rx)

Classification: Anti-infective

See Also: See also Anti-Infectives .

Action/Kinetics: Interferes with or inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. Therapeutic serum concentrations: peak 10-20 mcg/mL; trough: 5-10 mcg/mL (less for neonates). Peak serum concentration: IM, 2 hr. t 1/2: 4 hr. Metabolized in the liver; 75%-90% excreted in urine within 24 hr, as parent drug (8%-12%) and inactive metabolites. Mostly bacteriostatic. Well absorbed from the GI tract and distributed to all parts of the body, including CSF, pleural, and ascitic fluids; saliva; milk; and aqueous and vitreous humors.

Uses: Not to be used for trivial infections, prophylaxis of bacterial infections, or to treat colds, flu, or throat infections. Systemic Use. Treatment of choice for typhoid fever but not for typhoid carrier state. Serious infections caused by Salmonella, Rickettsia, Chlamydia and lymphogranuloma-psittacosis group. Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae. Brain abscesses due to Bacteroides fragilis. Cystic fibrosis anti-infective. Meningococcal or pneumococcal meningitis. Topical Use. Otitis externa. Prophylaxis of infection in minor cuts, wounds, skin abrasions, burns; promote healing in superficial infections of the skin. Ophthalmic Use. Superficial ocular infections due to Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus species, including S. pneumoniae; Escherichia coli, H. influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. ducreyi, Klebsiella species, Neisseria species, Enterobacter species, Moraxella species, and Vibrio species. Use only for serious ocular infections for which less dangerous drugs are either contraindicated or ineffective.

Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to chloramphenicol; pregnancy, especially near term and during labor; lactation. Avoid simultaneous administration of other drugs that may depress bone marrow. Ophthalmically in the presence of dendritic keratitis, vaccinia, varicella, mycobacterial or fungal eye infections, or following removal of a corneal foreign body. Topical products should not be used near or in the eye.

Special Concerns: Use with caution in clients with intermittent porphyria or G6PD deficiency. To avoid gray syndrome, use with caution and in reduced doses in premature and full-term infants. Ophthalmic ointments may retard corneal epithelial healing.

Side Effects: Hematologic (most serious): Aplastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia pancytopenia, hemoglobinuria (paroxysmal nocturnal). Hematologic studies should be undertaken before and every 2 days during therapy. GI: N&V, diarrhea, glossitis, stomatitis, unpleasant taste, enterocolitis, pruritus ani. Allergic: Fever, angioedema, macular and vesicular rashes, urticaria, hemorrhages of the skin, intestine, bladder, mouth. Anaphylaxis. CNS: Headache, delirium, confusion, mental depression. Neurologic: Optic neuritis, peripheral neuritis. Following topical use: Burning, itching, irritation, redness of skin. Hypersensitive clients may exhibit angioneurotic edema urticaria, vesicular and maculopapular dermatoses. Miscellaneous: Superinfection. Jaundice (rare). Herxheimer-like reactions when used for typhoid fever (may be due to release of bacterial endotoxins). Gray syndrome in infants: Rapid respiration, ashen gray color, failure to feed, abdominal distention with or without vomiting, progressive pallid cyanosis, vasomotor collapse, death. Can be reversed when drug is discontinued. NOTE: Neonates should be observed closely, since the drug accumulates in the bloodstream and the infant is thus subject to greater hazards of toxicity.
After ophthalmic use: Temporary blurring of vision, stinging, itching, burning, redness, irritation, swelling, decreased vision, persistent or worse pain.

Drug Interactions: Acetaminophen / Effect of chloramphenicol due to serum levels Anticoagulants, oral / Anticoagulant effect due to liver breakdown Antidiabetics, oral / Hypoglycemic effect due to liver breakdown Barbiturates / Barbiturate effect due to liver breakdown; also, serum levels of chloramphenicol Chymotrypsin / Chloramphenicol will inhibit chymotrypsin Cyclophosphamide / Delayed or activation of cyclophosphamide Iron preparations / Serum levels Penicillins / Either or effect when combined to treat certain microorganisms Phenytoin / Phenytoin effect due to liver breakdown; also, chloramphenicol levels may be or Rifampin / Chloramphenicol effect due to liver breakdown Tacrolimus / Tacrolimus blood levels due to liver breakdown Vitamin B 12 / Vitamin B 12 response when treating pernicious anemia

How Supplied: Chloramphenicol ophthalmic: Ointment: 1%; Powder for reconstitution: 25 mg; Solution: 0.5% Chloramphenicol sodium succinate: Powder for injection: 1 g

Dosage
?IV: Chloramphenicol
Adults: 50 mg/kg/day in four equally divided doses q 6 hr. Can be increased to 100 mg/kg/day in severe infections, but dosage should be reduced as soon as possible. Neonates and children with immature metabolic function: 25 mg/kg once daily in divided doses q 12 hr. Neonates, less than 2 kg: 25 mg/kg once daily. Neonates, over 2 kg, over 7 days of age: 50 mg/kg/day q 12 hr in divided doses. Neonates, over 2 kg, from birth to 7 days of age: 50 mg/kg once daily. Children: 50-75 mg/kg/day in divided doses q 6 hr (50-100 mg/kg/day in divided doses q 6 hr for meningitis). NOTE: Carefully follow dosage for premature and newborn infants less than 2 weeks of age because blood levels differ significantly from those of other age groups.
?Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate--IV Only
Same dosage as chloramphenicol (see the preceding). Switch to PO as soon as possible.
?Chloramphenicol Ophthalmic Ointment 1%
0.5-in. ribbon placed in lower conjunctival sac q 3-4 hr for acute infections and b.i.d.-t.i.d. for mild to moderate infections.
?Chloramphenicol Ophthalmic Solution 0.5%
1-2 gtt in lower conjunctival sac 2-6 times/day (or more for acute infections).
?Chloramphenicol Otic Solution 0.5%
2-3 gtt in ear t.i.d.
?Chloramphenicol Topical Cream 1%
Apply 1-4 times/day.

Chloramphenicol Ratings

Overall Rating:

3.5***~

 

(based on 2 reviews)

Effectiveness:

**~

Ease of Use:

***

Overall Satisfaction:

****~

Reviewit

Reviews

Chloramphenicol
3.0

Effectiveness: ***

Ease of Use: **

Overall Satisfaction: ****

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Fabio, Fabio - 01/13/2014

What wrong with the usa why do they always want their poelepe on drugs and not help people properly in hospitals. In everyother country´╗┐ doctors goal is to heal, not in the us, doctors goal is money and to sicken more. If no money they treat patients like animals and rather watch them die than help them. Im happy i do not live in the usa.